Enhancing Internal Temperature Control in Student Residential Colleges: Investigating the Potential of Retrofitting Rainwater Collection Tanks

Document Type : Research Paper


Department of Architecture, Faculty of Built Environment, Universiti Malaya, 50603, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia



This study investigated the potential of retrofitting rainwater collection tanks (RWH) into the facades of student residential colleges to improve internal temperature control. Carbon nanomaterials, including carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphene, were incorporated into the RWH facades to enhance thermal conductivity and mechanical strength. The aim was to address urbanization and climate change challenges through passive cooling strategies. The study analyzed ambient temperature, relative humidity, and wall surface temperature based on heat transfer principles. Statistical attributes, such as maximum, minimum, and average values, as well as daily fluctuations were examined. Heat transmission from external to internal walls was also quantified.   Materials analysis in this study involved the utilization of X-ray diffraction (XRD) for phase analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for investigating the morphology of CNTs, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) for further characterization. The results demonstrated the cooling effectiveness and thermal efficiency of the proposed RWH technology. The west-facing walls with RWH facades showed a remarkable cooling effect of up to 14.41°C compared to non-RWH counterparts. Similarly, east-facing walls equipped with RWH facades exhibited a maximum temperature reduction of 3.41°C. Carbon nanomaterials enhanced the structural integrity of the RWH facades, ensuring long-lasting reliability under challenging conditions. This study highlighted the effectiveness of RWH facades as passive cooling strategies for student residential colleges. The utilization of carbon nanomaterials further enhanced their thermal and mechanical properties. The results indicated valuable insights for improving internal temperature control and addressing climate change challenges in urban environments.


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